We have placed some information here for our clients to read PRIOR to a home inspection. This information will help
guide you through the pre-process and post-process of home inspection. We hope this information will help make the
process a much more enjoyable experience.
What is an appraisal? | Prepare for an appraisal | Appraisal uses | Appraisal myths | Links
A home purchase is the largest, single investment most people will ever make.
Whether it's a primary residence, a second vacation home or an investment, the purchase
of real property is a complex financial transaction that requires multiple parties to pull it all off.
Most of the people involved are very familiar. The Realtor is the most common face of the transaction.
The mortgage company provides the financial capital necessary to fund the transaction. The title company
ensures that all aspects of the transaction are completed and that a clear title passes from the seller to the buyer.
So who makes sure the value of the property is in line with the amount being paid?
There are too many people exposed in the real estate process to let such a transaction
proceed without ensuring that the value of the property is commensurate with the amount being paid.
This is where the appraisal comes in. An appraisal is an unbiased estimate of what a buyer might expect
to pay - or a seller receive - for a parcel of real estate, where both buyer and seller are informed parties.
To be an informed party, most people turn to a licensed, certified, professional appraiser to provide them with
the most accurate estimate of the true value of their property.
The Appraisal Inspection
So what goes into a real estate appraisal? It all starts with the inspection. An appraiser's duty is to
inspect the property being appraised to ascertain the true status of that property. The appraiser must actually
see features, such as the number of bedrooms, bathrooms, the location, and so on, to ensure that they really
exist and are in the condition a reasonable buyer would expect them to be. The inspection often includes a
sketch of the property, ensuring the proper square footage and conveying the layout of the property. Most importantly,
the appraiser looks for any obvious features - or defects - that would affect the value of the house.
Once the site has been inspected, an appraiser uses two or three approaches to determining the value of real property: a
cost approach, a sales comparison and, in the case of a rental property, an income approach.
The cost approach is the easiest to understand. The appraiser uses information on local building costs, labor
rates and other factors to determine how much it would cost to construct a property similar to the one being
appraised. This value often sets the upper limit on what a property would sell for. Why would you pay more for an
existing property if you could spend less and build a brand new home instead? While there may be mitigating factors,
such as location and amenities, these are usually not reflected in the cost approach.
Instead, appraisers rely on the sales comparison approach to value these types of items. Appraisers
get to know the neighborhoods in which they work. They understand the value of certain features to the
residents of that area. They know the traffic patterns, the school zones, the busy throughways; and they use
this information to determine which attributes of a property will make a difference in the value. Then, the
appraiser researches recent sales in the vicinity and finds properties which are ''comparable'' to the
subject being appraised. The sales prices of these properties are used as a basis to begin the sales comparison approach.
Using knowledge of the value of certain items such as square footage, extra bathrooms, hardwood floors,
fireplaces or view lots (just to name a few), the appraiser adjusts the comparable properties to more accurately
portray the subject property. For example, if the comparable property has a fireplace and the subject does not,
the appraiser may deduct the value of a fireplace from the sales price of the comparable home. If the subject
property has an extra half-bathroom and the comparable does not, the appraiser might add a certain amount to the
In the case of income producing properties - rental houses for example - the appraiser may use a third
approach to valuing the property. In this case, the amount of income the property produces is used to arrive
at the current value of those revenues over the foreseeable future.
Combining information from all approaches, the appraiser is then ready to stipulate an estimated market value
for the subject property. It is important to note that while this amount is probably the best indication of
what a property is worth, it may not be the final sales price. There are always mitigating factors such as
seller motivation, urgency or ''bidding wars'' that may adjust the final price up or down. But the appraised value
is often used as a guideline for lenders who don't want to loan a buyer more money that the property is actually
worth. The bottom line is: an appraiser will help you get the most accurate property value, so you can make the
most informed real estate decisions. back to top
For homeowners, a real estate appraisal is the linchpin to buying or selling their home. It allows the property
transactions to occur among the buyer, seller, real estate agent and mortgage lender.
Before an Appraiser arrives, there are a few things you should know. By law, an appraiser must be state
licensed to perform appraisals prepared for federally related transactions.
To facilitate the appraisal process, it's beneficial to have these documents ready for the appraiser:
- A plot plan or survey of the house and land (if readily available)
- Information on the latest purchase of the property in the last three years
- Written property agreements, such as a maintenance agreement for a shared driveway
- Home inspection reports, or other recent reports for termites, EIFS (synthetic stucco) wall systems, septic systems and wells
- Brag sheet that lists major home improvements and upgrades, the date of their installation and their cost (for example, the addition of central air conditioning or roof repairs) and permit confirmation (if available)
- Information on "Homeowners Associations" or condominium covenants and fees
- A list of "Proposed" improvements if the property is to be appraised "As Complete"
Once your appraiser has arrived, you do not need to accompany him or her along on the entire site inspection, but you should be available to answer
questions about your property and be willing to point out any home improvements. It is not necessary for you to be at the property during the
appraisal inspection unless you prefer to be there.
Here are some other suggestions:
- Accessibility: Make sure that all areas of the home are accessible, especially to the attic and crawl space
- Housekeeping: Appraisers see hundreds of homes a year and will look past most clutter. But it is always advisable to make the house as clean as possible
- Maintenance: Repair minor things like leaky faucets, missing door handles and trim
- FHA/VA Inspection Items: If your borrower is applying for an FHA/VA loan, be sure to ask your appraiser if there are specific things that should be done before they come. Some items they may recommend might be: Install smoke detectors on all levels (especially near bedrooms);
install handrails on all stairways; remove peeling paint and repaint the effected area; provide inspection access to the attic and crawl back to top
When do you need an appraisal?
Every year, countless people in the United States buy, sell or refinance their homes. Most, if not all, of these transactions
include a simple line item for an appraisal. It has become an understood and accepted part of a real estate transaction.
Propery tax challenges
Challenging the tax assessment has become an annual ritual in many parts of the country. Unfortunately, most people go
into these challenges unarmed. They may pull some information from the internet to support their claims, but have no real
basis other than: ''It wasn't worth that much last year.''
A real estate appraiser can help in these situations. While it may not be economical to commission a full appraisals to
lop a few hundred off your tax bill, often an appraiser can do a limited appraisal. These documents can carry a lot of
weight when you appear before an appeals board.
Private Mortgage Insurance or PMI is the supplemental insurance that many lenders ask home buyers to purchase when the
amount being loaned is more than 80% of the value of the home. Very often, this additional payment is folded into the
monthly mortgage payment and is quickly forgotten. This is unfortunate because PMI becomes unnecessary when the remaining
balance of the loan - whether through market appreciation or principal paydown - dips below this 80% level. In fact, the
United States Congress passed a law in 1998 (the Homeowners Protection Act of 1998) that requires lenders to remove the
PMI payments when the loan-to-value ratio conditions have been met.
Divorce Settlement, Estimating Market Value for Owners that sell their own property. back to top
Myth: Assessed value should equate to market value.
Reality: While most states support the concept that assessed value approximate estimated market value,
this often is not the case. Examples include when interior remodeling has occurred and the assessor is
unaware of the improvements, or when properties in the vicinity have not been reassessed for an extended period.
Myth: The appraised value of a property will vary, depending upon whether the appraisal is conducted for the buyer or the seller.
Reality: The appraiser has no vested interest in the outcome of the appraisal and should render services with
independence, objectivity and impartiality - no matter for whom the appraisal is conducted.
Myth: Market value should approximate replacement cost.
Reality: Market value is based on what a willing buyer likely would pay a willing seller for a particular property, with neither being
under pressure to buy or sell. Replacement cost is the dollar amount required to reconstruct a property in-kind.
Myth: Appraisers use a formula, such as a specific price per square foot, to figure out the value of a home.
Reality: Appraisers make a detailed analysis of all factors pertaining to the value of a home including its location, condition,
size, proximity to facilities and recent sale prices of comparable properties.
Myth: In a robust economy - when the sales prices of homes in a given area are reported to be rising by a particular percentage
- the value of individual properties in the area can be expected to appreciate by that same percentage.
Reality: Value appreciation of a specific property must be determined on an individualized basis, factoring in data on comparable
properties and other relevant considerations. This is true in good times as well as bad.
Myth: You generally can tell what a property is worth simply by looking at the outside.
Reality: Property value is determined by a number of factors, including location, condition,
improvements, amenities, and market trends.
Myth: Because consumers pay for appraisals when applying for loans to purchase or refinance
real estate, they own their appraisal.
Reality: The appraisal is, in fact, legally owned by the lender - unless the lender "releases its interest" in the document.
Myth: An Appraisal is the same as a home inspection.
Reality: An Appraisal does not serve the same purpose as an inspection. The Appraiser forms an opinion of value in the Appraisal
process and resulting report. A home inspector determines the condition of the home and its major components and reports these findings. back to top